ANSWERS FOR CHAPTER 3

LIVING WITH THE EARTH

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.The wordwide increase of development and use of new technology to increase the yield of food crops is termed the ________.

2. The greatest single disadvantage of planting a single crop would be ________.

3. Where there is common land, air, or water, some people will take advantage of this and degrade the land and its resources to their own advantage and at the expense of others is termed ________.

4. Plants which are able to synthesize their own food substances are called ________.

5. A condition when fields remain unplanted for several years in order to regain moisture and nutrients.

6. Wetlands appear in every biome except ________.

7. The range of animal and plant species and the genetic variability of these species is referred to as ________.

8. The brown tree snake and the zebra mussel exported to foreign soils have become examples of ________ .

9. The continent with the most serious food shortages is ________.

10. Food quantity is expected to increase due primarily to ________.

11. People unable to acquire the basic food they need to function are considered ________.

12. The ________ refers to that "demand level" corresponding to purchasing power without regard to food requirements.

13. World population rates rose sharply during ________.

14. The primary greenhouse gas contributing to global warming is ________.

15. Paul Erlich of Stanford University thinks the impact of humanity on earth is determined by ________.

16. The notion where resource use and replacement come into balance and the discharge of pollutants is minimized.

17. The benefits of the tropical rainforests include:

18. The most fertile of the world's soils lie in the:

19. Land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas by human activities is termed ________.

20. The continent experiencing the greatest loses from land degradation is ________.

 

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TRUE/ FALSE

1. Malthus published an article in 1789 stating that the human population is growing arithmetically.

T. _______ F. _______ (False)

 

2. Cornucopians are people who believe that the shear number of people aren't a problem, but that greater technology and innovation will easily sustain larger populations.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

3. Gene guns are used to transfer genetic information to various plants.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

4. The pioneer mentality should be continued while working toward a sustainable development.

T. _______ F. _______ (False)

 

5. Clay soils consist of gritty particles

T. _______ F. _______ (False)

 

6. One method of reducing soil erosion, where farmers plant on hillsides is termed terracing.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

7. Soil erosion claims over a billion acres cropland annually around the globe.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

8. Wetlands are boring areas with little or no importance.

T. _______ F. _______ (False)

 

9. The destruction and fragmentation of habitat is one major threat to biodiversity.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

10. Acid deposition from the release of nitrogen and sulfur oxides have caused dramatic ecological effects in the United States.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

11. The former Soviet Union has experienced a significant boost in agricultural production since 1989.

T. _______ F. _______ (False)

 

12. Chronic malnutrition is a difficult and pervasive problem resulting in a food security crisis in mainly LDCs.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

13. Hunger is a persistent problem here in America.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

14. Pessimists believing bad things will happen to the world as a result of unsustainable human populations are often referred to as neo-Malthusians.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

15. LDCs continue to use natural gas as a primary fuel instead of wood for cooking and heating.

T. _______ F. _______ (False)

 

16. There is a widening of the wealth gap in many countries.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

17. The pessimistic view warns that population momentum will propel humankind beyond the carrying capacity of the earth creating much human suffering.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

18. The tropical rain forests are predominantly located in the temperate biome.

T. _______ F. _______ (False)

 

19. Soils best suited for agriculture are referred to as loam.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

20. Marginal lands are increasingly less resilient to human and climatic disturbances.

T. _______ F. _______ (True)

 

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ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

1. Does Thomas Malthus believe the world can support a growing population? Explain.

Malthus believes that the human population is growing exponentially and the food supply is growing arithmetically. Eventually the world's population will exceed the food supply leading to widespread misery and suffering. (P.3-2).

2. What is the Green Revolution?

The Green Revolution was established in the 1960's as a plan to increase crop yield by using technology to grow and cultivate crops. Technologies used include cross breeding and mutation by radiation, gene transfer using a gene gun, planting monocultures, and using computers and better fertilizers to promote greater crop yields. (P. 3-6).

3. What is the Tragedy of the Commons?

The Tragedy of the Commons is when a person or persons degrade an environment by overgrazing and overexploiting resources for their own advantages and usually at the expense of others and future generations. (P. 3-10).

4. What major benefits do rainforests provide?

The rain forests are located primarily in the LDCs around the equatorial region. They are a major producer of oxygen, they provide a sink of absorption for carbon dioxide, they are potential sources for new and emerging pharmaceuticals, and as an important source of species diversity. (P. 3-13).

5. Name some factors that may decline food security and others that will increase food yields.

Deficiencies in food resources occur due to droughts, floods, wars, poor harvests, and the use of old inefficient technologies. Factors that will increase food yields can include an increase in arable land, increase in cropping intensities, using newer technologies, and developing infrastructures to subsidize the costs of farming and market shares. (P. 3-45).