For more information on the models see:

Heat Transfer in a Heat Exchanger

Logarithmic Mean Temperature of a Heat Exchanger

Steady State Heat Transfer Through an Insulated Wall

Stefan-Boltzmann Law

Dynamic Germination of Seeds and Microbial Spores

Extending the Square Root Growth Rate Model to Lethal Low Temperatures

Generalized Logistic (Verhulst) Isothermal Microbial Growth on Linear and Logarithmic Coordinates

Growth Curves for a Mixture of Two Subpopulations

Isothermal Germination of Seeds and Microbial Spores

Lag Time in Microbial Growth

Modified Logistic Isothermal Microbial Growth Ratio (Linear and Logarithmic) vs. Time

Ratio-Based Modified Logistic Isothermal Microbial Growth on Linear and Logarithmic Coordinates

Ratkowski's Square Root Growth Rate Model for High Temperatures

Square Root Model for Rates of Microbial Growth or Inactivation

Uncertainties in Isothermal Microbial Growth

Degradation Parameters from Concentration Ratios

Degrees of Microbial Injury and Survival

Determining Shelf Life by Two Criteria

Endpoints Method for Predicting Chemical Degradation in Frozen Foods

Equivalent Isothermal Time at a Reference Temperature as a Function of Time

Extracting Fixed-Order Degradation Kinetics by the Endpoints Method

Extracting Microbial Inactivation Parameters from Final Isothermal Survival Ratios

Extracting Microbial Inactivation Parameters from Final Survival Ratios

Fit of First-Order Kinetic Model in Degradation Processes

Growth Inhibition and Retardation by Antimicrobials

Idealized Conventional and Pressure-Assisted Thermal Preservation Processes

Injury in Microbial Inactivation

Kinetic Order of Degradation Reactions

Log Survival Ratio as a Function of Time

Microbial Survival with Dissipating Disinfectant

Nonisothermal Degradation Kinetics

Prediction of Isothermal Degradation by the Endpoints Method

Primary and Secondary Shelf Life

Probabilistic Model for Microbial Mortality

Probabilistic Model Showing Sigmoid Semilogarithmic Survival

Rate Constant Calculation from Four Temperature and Moisture Combinations

Reaction Rate Dependence on Temperature and Moisture During Storage

Sigmoid Microbial Survival Curves

Simulating Ascorbic Acid Degradation

Simulating Temperature versus Time Relationships in the Thermal Preservation of Foods

Stochastic Model of Microbial Injury and Mortality

Stochastic Model of Seed and Spore Germination

Successive Three Point Method for Weibullian Chemical Degradation

Survival Curves of Bacilli Spores with an Activation Shoulder

Thermal Degradation of Three Nutrients in Foods

Three-Endpoints Method for Isothermal Weibullian Chemical Degradation

Uncertainties in Isothermal Microbial Inactivation

Vitamin C Loss in Foods During Heat Processing and Storage

Volatiles Formation Kinetics in Stored Fish

Weibullian Chemical Degradation

Weibullian Inactivation Rate as a Function of Temperature

Weibullian Inactivation Rate as a Function of Time

Weibullian versus Log-Linear Microbial Survival Models

Biphasic Exponential Decay And Growth

De Novo Growth Processes With Competing Mechanisms

Effects of Temperature Fluctuations on Oscillating Biological Systems

Food Preservation Hurdle Technology

Incipient Growth Processes With Competing Mechanisms

Microbial Population Growth, Mortality and Transitions Between Them

Synergism and Antagonism

Dehydration by a Desiccant

Dynamic Water Absorption by Foods

Equivalent Length of a Pipe with Fittings and Valves

Estimating Processing Times in a Row of Storage Tanks

Flow Curves of a Herschel-Bulkley Fluid

Flow from a Tank at Constant Height

Food Calories

Force to Overcome Vacuum Pull

Frictional Pressure Drop in a Pipe

Heat Balance in Freezing and Thawing Food

Kjeldahl Method for Determining Percent Protein from Percent Nitrogen

Lubricated and Frictional Squeezing Flow

Mass Balance in a Single Stage Evaporator

Mass Balance of Binary Mixtures

Milk Centrifugation To Cream and Skim

Operation of an Ideal Belt Conveyor

Refrigeration Cycle Coefficient of Performance

Three Component Food Mixtures

Titration of Common Food Acids

A Contact Element in Rheological Models

A Sliding Element in Rheological Models

Arrhenius Equations for Reaction Rate and Viscosity

Arrhenius versus Exponential Model for Chemical Reactions

Arrhenius Versus Eyring-Polanyi Model

Bimodal Normal Distribution Mixtures

Brix Corrections for Citric Acid and Temperature

Central Limit Theorem Applied to Samples of Different Sizes and Ranges

Characteristic Times in Accumulation and Decay

Choosing Initial Parameter Values for Nonlinear Regression

Comparing Measures of Line Jaggedness

Comparison of Six Sigmoid Growth Curve Models

Creep and Stress Relaxation for Four Element Viscoelastic Solids and Liquids

Distribution of the Means of Samples Having Random Sizes

Effect of Outliers on Fit of Growth Models

Ehrenfest's Double-Urn Game

Expanded Magnitude Estimation Method

Exponential Model For Arrhenius Activation Energy

Eyring-Polanyi versus Exponential Model for Chemical Reactions

Five Definitions of Strain for Large Deformations

Food Color Comparisons

Fourier Power Spectrum as a Measure of Line Jaggedness

Fracture Element in Rheological Models

Gordon-Taylor and Fox Equations for Glass Transition Temperature

Hysteresis in the Flow Curves of Pseudoplastic Semiliquid Foods

Laplace Distribution in Fluctuating Stock Index Records

Line Jaggedness Visualization with the Mandelbrot-Weierstrass Function

Mechanical Sensitivity of Soft Testing Machines

Monte Carlo Estimation of Area

Noise Retrieval from Averaged Sequences

Parameterizing Temperature-Viscosity Relations

Probability of Being Strange According to Paulos

Relaxation of a Discrete Maxwell Model

Relaxation of a Maxwell Element

Simulated Jagged Force-Displacement Curves

Three Element Viscoelastic Models

Williams, Landel, and Ferry Equation Compared with Actual and "Universal" Constants

Comparison of Food Moisture Sorption Isotherm Equations

Container Filled with Particulates

Equilibrium Water Activity of Binary Dry Mixtures

Erosion Index For Particulates

Estimating Cohesion and Tensile Strength of Compacted Powders

Principal Stresses in Compacted Cohesive Powders

Structure of Dilute Suspensions

Surface Area Increase by Size Reduction

The Ratio of Surface Area to Volume for a Cube and a Sphere

Volume and Mass of a Spoonful of Powder

Wet and Dry Basis Moisture Content

Additive and Multiplicative Risks

Assessing the Risk of Food Poisoning

Assessing Total Risk from Interacting Factors

Effect of Immunity and Susceptibility on Sickness or Mortality Risk

Estimation of Time to Excessive Microbial Count

Estimating the Time between Mishaps from Quality Control Data

Expanded Fermi Solution for Estimating a Complaint's Probability

Expanded Fermi Solution for Risk Assessment

Expanded Fermi Solutions in Pathogens' Dose-Response Curves

Expanded Fermi Solution to Retrodict the Initial from the Final Number in a Stochastic Process

Failure Probabilities from Quality Control Charts

Hidden Periodicity in Quality Control Records

Pathogen Dose-Response Curves with the Beta Poisson and Lognormal Models

Risk Guesstimation from Factor Ranges

Simulating Microbial Count Records with an Expanded Fermi Solution Model

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