English 412 Midterm Review

Terms in italics are not on the midterm

 


Phonology. Vowel space, consonant space, manners and places of articulation. Define phoneme.

Morphology. Use this handout: http://people.umass.edu/sharris/hel/ho/morphology.html

Lexicon and Change. Affix (prefix,, suffix), Stem, Coinage, Clipping, Acronym, Blend, Pejoration, Amelioration, Broadening, Narrowing, Loan Word, Alphabet, ANALOGY, Lentition, Aphaeresis, Apocope, Syncope, Cluster Reduction, Metathesis, Vowel breaking, Assimilation, Umlaut.

PIE Languages. Cognate languages, dialects, Inflectional lang., Agglutinating lang., Isolating lang., Satem, Centum, Celtic, Italic, Germanic, East Germanic, West Germanic, North Germanic, High German, Low German, Bishop Ulfilas, Prosody, Pitch vs. Stress, laryngeal, Grimm's Law, Verner's Law, Ablaut &Vowel grades (full, reduced, zero).

Issues for Consideration:, 1. The role of stress in language change., 2. Sources for our knowledge of Germanic languages., 3. European language families.

PIE > PGmc. phonemic changes (f, v), loss of long consonants, initial h > 0, ge > y or i, apocope of unstressed consonants, y unrounds, new diphthongs,, quantitative vowel distinction, plain adverb, alphabet change, digraphs (sh, ch, dg, wh, gu), loss of inflection, Sources of lexicon, phonological inventory, changes in consonants, changes in vowels, long consonants.

Issues. Grimm's Law and its relation to Verner's Law.

PGmc > OE. Inflection of pronouns; Gmc /k/ --> OE [k], [ch]; Gmc /g/ --> OE [g], [¥], [j]; Gmc /sk/ --> OE [sh]; Gmc /gg/ --> OE [dj]. New phonemes. Double consonants (e.g. "dd"). Gmc /h/ --> OE [h], [ç], [x]; OE "hw", "kn", "gn"; Breaking, Palatal Diphthongization, I-Umlaut, Dialects (West Saxon, eWS > lWS, Anglian [Mercian, Northumbrian], Kentish); Germanic Stress Rule, rhotacism, Bede, Augustine 597 AD, Vortigern 449 AD, 1066 AD, cases (nominative, dative, accusative, genitive), number (singular, dual, plural), parts of speech, Futhorc (Thorn, Eth, Wynn, Yogh, Asc);

Issues. 1. West Gmc breaking; 2. I-umlaut, I-umlaut, I-umlaut; 3. Codices of Anglo-Saxon poetry (Junius, Exeter, Vercelli, Cotton Vitellius A.xv), Old English Meter, Literary Dialects vs. Spoken language, Orality and Literacy, Liturgy, Charms, Caedmon, Cynewulf, AElfric, Wulfstan, Benedictine Reform.

***

Middle English. allophone of /g/, ic --> I, unrounding of /y/, instrusive b, d, t, "k" distributed for "c", /mb/ --> /m/, diphthong smoothing, epenthetic schwa, long/short vowels, plain adverb, allographs, u --> o (e.g., "son"), thorn --> th, loss of inflection, role of prepositions, prosody, grammatical gender, strong verbs, weak verbs, perfective, levelling, shall/will, infinitive, passive infinitive, negatives, ngative contractions, synthetic vs. analytic; 1. Reason for increase in phonemic inventory, 2. Quantitative distinction between long and short vowels, 3. Reason "son" isn't spelled with a "u", 4. Weakening of strong verbs, 5. Reasons for the loss of inflections

quantitative vowel distinction, plain adverb, alphabet change, digraphs (sh, ch, dg, wh, gu), loss of inflection, phonemic changes (f,v; s,z), loss of long consonants, initial h > 0, ge > y or i, apocope of unstressed con., y unrounds, new diphthongs

Sources of lexicon, phonological inventory, changes in consonants, changes in vowels, long consonants, allophone of /g/, ic --> I, unrounding of /y/, instrusive b, d, t; "k" distributed for "c", /mb/ --> /m/, diphthong smoothing, epenthetic schwa, long/short vowels, plain adverb, allographs, u --> o (e.g., "son"), thorn --> th, loss of inflection, role of prepositions, prosody, grammatical gender, strong verbs, weak verbs, perfective, levelling, shall/will, infinitive, passive infinitive, negatives, negative contractions, synthetic vs. analytic

Reason for increase in phonemic inventory ; 2. Quantitative distinction between long and short vowels ; 3. Weakening of strong verbs; 4. Reasons for the loss of inflections