bilabial sound produced at the lips (e.g., /b/)
interdental sound produced between the teeth (e.g., /th/--eth)
alveolar sound produced at the alveolar ridge (e.g., /t/)
alveopalatal/palatal sound produced at the hard palate (e.g., /ç/)
velar sound produced at the velum (e.g., /k/)
uvular sound produced at the uvula (e.g., /R/)
laryngeal sound produced at the larynx (not in English)
glottal sound produced at the glottis (e.g., /?/, as in Liverpool "butter" or NY "Latin")
stop/plosive the air stops during articulation
affricate a stop followed immeadiately by a fricative during articulation
fricative/spirant air forced through a constricted passage during articulation
nasal air passes through the nose during articulation
lateral air passes along the sides of the mouth during articulation
retroflex the tongue is curled at the alveolar ridge during articulation
semivowel /w/ and /j/
aspiration puff of air during articulation
phoneme smallest meaningful speech sound
allophone noncontrastive variant of a phoneme
high, mid, low vowel classifications referring to vertical vowel space
front, center, back vowel classifications referring to horizontal vowel space
diphthong two vowel sounds in the same syllable
glide diphthong which terminates with the semivowel /j/
prosody the stress system of a language
[...] represents an articulated sound
/.../ represents a phoneme
cardinal vowel the general area of articulation for allophones of a particular vowel phoneme
minimal pairs lexemes that differ by one phoneme: <fox>, <box>; <pat>, <bat>; etc.
distribution specific environments in which a given phoneme is possible. Complementary distribution refers to two or more related phonemes that appear exclusively of one another in a single phonetic environment.
free variation describes two or more phones that can appear in the same environment without changing the meaning of a lexeme. /kar/ and /kaR/, for example.
Vowel Quadrilateral (know this!)
homophones two or more letters that represent the same phoneme: <s> and <c>, as in city and silly