Ling 606 2018

Ling 606 Phonological theory

This is a follow-up to last semester’s introduction to phonology. We’ll be extending the empirical scope to harmony systems, the role of the lexicon, tone and intonation, and the syntax-phonology interface.

Since we’re a small class, I hope to customize the course to your interests. We also scheduled the phonology seminar, on lexically conditioned phonology and exceptionality, at the same time, so that we can meet as a group sometimes.


Week 1: Typology of Harmony Systems and Serial Harmonic Grammar

Phonology state-of-the-art

Cognitive Science state-of-the-art

Background on spreading in OT

McCarthy 2011 discussed in above

Turkish example for background discussion

Reading: Kevin Mullin. 2011. Strength in Harmony Systems: Trigger and Directional Asymmetries. Ms, UMass Amherst.

Mullin and Pater. 2015. Follow-up conference handout

Potts, Christopher, Joe Pater, Karen Jesney, Rajesh Bhatt and Michael Becker. 2010. Harmonic Grammar with Linear Programming: From linear systems to linguistic typology. Phonology 27: 77-117. (Discussed in class: sec. 5 on Lango)

Supplement: Rose, Sharon and Rachel Walker. (2011) Harmony Systems. In J. Goldsmith, J. Riggle & A. Yu (eds.) Handbook of Phonological Theory (2nd ed.). Blackwell.

Week 2: Indexed constraints (with Ling 751)

Reading: Pater, Joe. 2010. Morpheme-Specific Phonology: Constraint Indexation and Inconsistency Resolution. Phonological Argumentation: Essays on Evidence and Motivation, 123–154. London: Equinox.

Supplement: Finley, Sara. 2010. Exceptions in vowel harmony are local. Lingua 120(6). 1549–1566. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2009.10.003.

Harmony follow-up: My OT-Help files in a .zip file, the above-linked Mullin and Pater handout, Stanton mfm handout, more Sour Grapes and Use it Or Lose It discussion, and yet more.

Week 3 Harmony and learning biases

Read for Tuesday: Moreton, Elliott (2008). Analytic bias and phonological typology. Phonology 25(1):83-127.

Read for Thursday: Coetzee, Andries and Joe Pater. 2011. The place of variation in phonological theory. In John Goldsmith, Jason Riggle, and Alan Yu (eds.), The Handbook of Phonological Theory (2nd ed.). Blackwell. 401-431.

Extra for Thursday:

Pater, Joe and Elliott Moreton. 2012. Incremental Maximum Entropy phonotactics and the Shepard complexity hierarchy. Talk presented October 6th to the Northeast Computational Phonology Circle, University of Maryland.

Week 4: Indexation vs. segmental specification in Polish yers

Read for Tuesday: Rubach, Jerzy. 2013. Exceptional segments in Polish. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory.

Week 5 (Feb. 20-22)

Read for Tuesday (Shay): Morley, R. (2015). Deletion or Epenthesis? On the Falsifiability of Phonological Universals. Lingua 154: 1-26.

Read for Tuesday/Thursday: Smith, Brian and Joe Pater. 2017. French schwa and gradient cumulativity. Ms, University of California Berkeley and University of Massachusetts Amhert.

Japanese MaxEnt in Excel.

Does MaxEnt Overgenerate? Hughto and Pater on Anttila and Magri 2017.

Excel file accompanying the above handout.

Learning with various flavors of MaxEnt gradient descent.

Slides for the above handout: Pater, Joe and Robert Staubs. 2013. Modeling learning trajectories with batch gradient descent. Paper presented October 27th to the Northeast Computational Phonology Circle, MIT. [Script and input file for batch Dutch simulation available here].

Mark Johnson's 2012 "A gentle introduction to maximum entropy, log-linear, exponential, logistic, harmonic, Boltzmann, Markov Random Fields, Conditional Random Fields, etc., models".

Blog post on "Improving vanilla gradient descent".

Brian Smith on MaxEnt models and logistic regression.

Week 6 (Feb. 27 - Mar. 1)

Read for Tuesday (Kaden): Zukoff, Sam. 2017. Arabic Nonconcatenative Morphology and the Syntax-Phonology Interface. NELS 47: Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society, edited by Andrew Lamont and Katerina Tetzloff, 3:295-314. Amherst, MA: Graduate Linguistics Student Association.

Read for Tuesday (Kaden): Zukoff, Sam. 2017. The Mirror Alignment Principle: Morpheme Ordering at the Morphosyntax-Phonology Interface. Papers on Morphology (MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 81), edited by Snejana Iovtcheva and Benjamin Storme, 105-124. Cambridge, MA: MITWPL.

Read for Thursday (joint meeting with 751): Pater, Joe, Robert Staubs, Karen Jesney and Brian Smith. 2012. Learning probabilities over underlying representations. In the Proceedings of the Twelfth Meeting of the ACL-SIGMORPHON: Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology. 62-71.

Week 7 (Mar. 6-8)

Read for Tuesday (Max): Moreton, Elliott, Joe Pater and Katya Pertsova. 2015. Phonological concept learning. Cognitive Science. 1-66. DOI: 10.1111/cogs.12319

Thursday: Discussion of hidden structure learning in MaxEnt with gradient descent. See "Learning with various flavors of MaxEnt gradient descent" and the Pater and Staubs 2013 slides from week 5 for background.

Download: R script, Input file 1, Input file 2

Week 8 (Mar. 20-22)

Tues. (at 1 pm): Martin, Andrew. 2011. Grammars leak: Modeling how phonotactic generalizations interact within the grammar. Language, Volume 87, Number 4, December 2011, pp. 751-770.

Also for hidden structure discussion: two old handouts on iterated learning of morphology and morpho-syntax with hidden structure.

Thursday: Ryan, Kevin. 2010. Variable affix order: grammar and learning. Language 86.4: 758-791.

Week 9 (Mar. 27-29)

Fountain, Amy. 1998. An optimality theoretic account of Navajo prefixal syllables. University of Arizona PhD dissertation.

Notes on Fountain

Tangential things mentioned in handout: Secret path film, documentary and panel, My connection to Gord Downie

Week 10 (April 3 - 5)

Thursday: Ryan, Kevin. 2010. Variable affix order: grammar and learning. Language 86.4: 758-791.

Notes on Ryan

HG in R webpage

Week 11 (April 10 - 12)

Deal, Amy Rose and Matthew Wolf. 2016. Outwards-sensitive phonologically-conditioned allomorphy in Nez Perce. In Vera Gribanova and Stephanie Shih (eds.), The Morphosyntax-Phonology Connection, pp. 29-60. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2013 lingbuzz version

Week 12 (April 19)

Smith, Brian (2015) English a and an. Chapter 2 and sections 3.5 and 3.6 of Phonologically Conditioned Allomorphy and UR Constraints, UMass PhD dissertation.

Week 13 (April 24 and 26)

Kiparsky, Paul. 2015. Stratal OT: A synopsis and FAQs. In Yuchau E. Hsiao and Lian-Hee Wee (eds.) Capturing Phonological Shades. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Handouts to accompany Kiparsky discussion: Cyclicity and level ordering, and Opacity.

Week 14 (May 1)

Yu, Alan C. L. 2004. Explaining final obstruent voicing in Lezgian: Phonetics and history. Language 80: 73-97.

A useful overview of the subsequent literature (pp. 30 ff.):

Beguš, G., Forthcoming. Segmental phonetics and phonology. In The Oxford Handbook of Languages of the Caucasus. Oxford University Press.

Beguš makes a good case that attested cases of post-nasal devoicing come from sequences of sound change.

Kiparsky on both syntax and phonology:

Kiparsky, Paul. 2008.Universals constrain change, change results in typological generalizations. In Jeff Good, (ed.) Linguistic universals and language change, OUP

For my take on unnatural rules, phonetic substance and phonological theory, developed with Elliott Moreton, see section 0.2 of:

Pater, Joe and Elliott Moreton. 2012. Structurally biased phonology: Complexity in learning and typology. In a special issue of the EFL Journal on phonology, edited by K.G. Vijayakrishnan (The Journal of the English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad), 1-44.

Some further ideas

Harmony, exceptionality, and wug-testing

Bruce Hayes, Kie Zuraw, Peter Siptar, and Zsuzsa Londe (2009). Natural and unnatural constraints in Hungarian vowel harmony. Language 85: 822-863.

Morphology-phonology interaction

Fountain, Amy. 1998. An optimality theoretic account of Navajo prefixal syllables. University of Arizona PhD dissertation.

Tone and intonation: the basics

Textbook reading

Typology of tone

Larry M. Hyman (2014) "How autosegmental is phonology?" The Linguistic Review 31.363-400.

Larry M. Hyman (2011) "Tone: Is it different?" In John Goldsmith, Jason Riggle and Alan Yu (eds), "The Handbook of Phonological Theory," 2nd edition, 197-239. Blackwell.