A. Project Files
program is entitled Decision Support
Methodology for Integrated Production Systems.
This program is described in the appendix of Chapter
3. This decision support program enables the user to
determine the unit cost of producing a product which
has number of parts. The application is designed in
Visual Basic Version 6.0. It also uses MS Access application
for its database requirements.
Modules are coded to compute the various component
of the cost of a product. Following are the components
that make-up the cost of a product
• Material handling
• Direct labor
• Indirect Labor
• Administrative Personnel
• Others (Building, Electricity, etc…)
Material Selection and Cost Estimation
Within the general DSS, another application provides
the user with a list of most commonly used metals and
alloys and their commonly available forms in the market.
The user has to select the most appropriate material
and its form for the part to be produced. This information
supplemented with the information on number of parts
made per sheet/round bar is used to estimate the cost
of material. Excel sheets are embedded as OLE objects
in the VB forms to provide information about the various
forms of the materials.
Handling Equipment Selection and Cost Estimation
This is a separate Visual Basic application (DSS-MHE)
that has been created to help the student select the
most appropriate Material Handling Equipment (MHE). The
user's manual is included in Chapter 7 of the textbook.
This application identifies an appropriate Material Handling
Equipment based on the user input for the following questions:
• Primary function of material handling Equipment
• Size of the material(part) to be moved
• Frequency of the movement of the material(parts)
• Path the material has to follow during transportation
Another set of user inputs are obtained to further
classify the chosen type of the Material Handling Equipment.
Cost information pertaining to the specific MHE is
obtained from a MS Access database (PicSource.mdb)
present in the backend of the application.
Selection and Cost Estimation is another decision support
system included with the textbook. It is primarily
described in the appendix og Chapter 3. It is a separate
database application (MC.mdb) that has been created
in Microsoft Access. It has a wide range of machines
for each of the commonly used manufacturing processes.
Each record in the database provides specific information
about the type of the machine, its dimensions and other
attributes, capacity and cost. This database application
provides the user with necessary information and helps
the user in the selection of appropriate machinery.
Standard time Estimation
Another component in the estimation of cost of machinery
related to the total cost of the product is the estimation
of number of machines required. Estimation of number
of machines required is done by calculating the standard
time for producing a unit quantity of the product.
The forms (Turning, Milling, and Drilling) are specifically
designed to calculate the standard times for each of
these processes. These Standard time(s) information
supplemented by information on availability factor,
percentage of non-defective product produced and unit
cost of machinery is used to calculate the ‘machine
component’ of the total cost.
||Documentation/MS Word/PDFs description
here [download ]
B. Layout Tools
FLAP - Facility LAyout
Program (FLAP) is an computer application
for the facility layout design problem. The program
is similar to the commercially available layout design
The application tool uses an Activity Relationship
Matrix or the Trips between
Departments to recommend the Layout
of the facility. The tool provides options to build
relationship charts between the number of departments
specified, and input from-to and relation charts
in the form of a text file in case of more number
of departments. The program then assigns suitable
weights to the various departments and ranks them
according to the number of A, E, I, O and U relationships.
The program then takes in the area of the facility
and the individual department areas. The output of
the program is to position the various departments
based on the closeness rank within the specified
layout area. The program recommends two alternate
layouts and also provides the scoring for each of
the layouts based on a scoring model. The application
falls under the category of computerized layout programs,
which automates the layout generation. The program
provides two alternative layout designs for the problem
based on the relation or trips information within
the specified area. However the design alternative
provided may not be the optimal for the specified conditions.
FLAP just aids the user in making a decision regarding
the facility layout, by acting as a Decision Support
System Tool (DSST).[download ]
Multi-Attribute Facility Layout and Design (MAFLAD)
is a computer program that was introduced by Smith
and Macleod in 1988. MAFLAD solves the problem of physically
organizing a number of entities within a given facility
to optimality by means of an underlying branch and
bound algorithm. The approach chosen with MAFLAD is
based on the Quadratic Set Packing (QSP) model, which
offers various computational advantages over the more
general Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP), which was
first introduced by Koopmans and Beckmann in 1957 to
model the assignment of indivisible resources to a
given set of locations [download ].
STEP Sample-Test Pairwise Exchange Procedure (STEP)
In the following, we have the facility layout STEP
algorithm of Li and Smith, which is a hybrid of a
graph theoretic and improvement approach using an underlying steiner
circulation flow graph to estimate the congestion in the layout, and
a sampling design scheme to perturb the arrangement of the
It has been extensively tested against the standard Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP)
test problems (without congestion modeling) but it also has the capability of modeling
congestion in the layout.
The underlying mathematical model is extensively described in the textbook.
It is a heuristic for the QAP.
Users enter different problems with two files,
one a flow matrix and the other a distance matrix.
It is not as user-friendly as GMaflad, but it is very effective.
We describe the approach in some detail in Chapter 6 of the textbook, as it is
one of the algorithms utilized in the textbook. [download ]
C. Analysis Tools
an analytical tool used to model open queuing networks
with multiple product types and multiple sources. The
tool, GQNET, is an extension of the queuing network
model QNET presented by J. M. Smith, R. J. Graves and
L. Kerbache in a paper in 1986 . QNET was primarily
used to model the flow of products in a material handling
system and considered only queues with infinite buffer
capacity. GQNET, however, can be used to model pedestrian
traffic flow as well as the flow of products and it
can also account for blocking in queuing networks to
a certain extent caused by finite buffers. GQNET also
has an easy-to-use graphical user interface which allows
the user to model any network topology with no difficulty.
CNET - Closed Queueing Network Procedure
The CNET algorithm is a closed queueing network procedure as described in
Chapter 8 of the textbook.
It represents a finite queueing network closed loop model where there is a
finite population N of carriers or pallets and finite
buffers at all the queues.
Various performance measures are output for the entire network
(including cycle time and throughput)
and all the performance measures for the nodes in the network.
Users can alter the cost parameters and network topology of the model as needed.
D. Simulation Tools
Cellular Layout Simulation Model
This cellular layout simulation model is described in Chapter 8 of the textbook.
It demonstrates the movement of the single worker in the work cell along with performance
of machine utilization, cycle time, throughput and queues of parts in the cellular layout.
This is a good example of a ``one-piece'' part flow process.
The simulation model runs for one 7.5 hour shift and a number of alternative designs
for the layout with certain conditions are included.
There are a number of files with this download, please view the readme file for further
Warehouse Simulation Model
The warehouse simulation model is described at the end of Chapter 8
in the textbook. The simulation model shows the movement of forklift
trucks in the facility along with the movement of the polymer
storage units (gaylords) and their storage location housed in the
Various performance measures are also collected for the
orders and inventory of the storage units (gaylords), utilization of
machines, and forklifts.
This is a good example of a floor storage
The downloaded simulation model is an .avi file.
It is called `` polymer-processing.avi'' and
you should download this .avi file, double click on it and run it
with windows media player or a similar software tool.
Office Planning Simulation Model
The office planning simulation model is extensively described in
Chapter 11 of the textbook. The simulation model shows the dynamic
flows of the customers for the first office facility plan described
in the textbook.
It also indicates the parking lot simulation and
customers coming in from the parking lot and users using the
automatic teller machines (atm) machines.
The downloaded simulation
model is an .avi file. It is called ``office-simulation.avi'' and
you should download this .avi file, double
click on it and run it with windows media player or a similar
ARENA Project Files description here
||Simullab description here [download ]
E. Lecture Slides
Lecture Slides can be downloaded here