Orbell, S., Hodgkins, S., & Sheeran, P. (1997). Implementation intentions and
the theory of planned behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,
Examines the implications of P. Gollwitzer's (1993) concept of
implementation intentions (IMIs) for the theory of planned behavior (e.g.,
I. Ajzen, 1995), in 155 female students and staff. Attitude, subjective
norm, perceived behavioral control, and intentions were assessed before an
intervention that required Ss to make IMIs concerning when and where they
would perform breast self-examination during the next month. Behavior was
assessed by self-report 1 mo later. Results supported Gollwitzer's
contention that goal intentions that have been supplemented by IMIs,
concerning where and when the behavior is to be performed, are more likely
to be enacted. Evidence suggested that IMIs were effective because they
provided a mechanism that facilitated the retrieval of intentions in
memory. IMIs also reduced the capacity of past behavior to predict future
behavior, suggesting that IMIs mimic the effect of habit in human action.
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