Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2004). Questions raised by a reasoned action approach: Reply to Ogden (2003). Health Psychology, 23, 431-434.
In her critique of social cognition or reasoned action models, Ogden (2003) claims that such models are not falsifiable and thus cannot be tested, that the postulated relations among model components are true by definition, and that questionnaires used to test the models may create, rather than assess, cognitions and thus influence later behavior. We challenge all three arguments and contend that findings Ogden regards as requiring rejection of the models are, in fact, consistent with them, that there is good evidence for the validity of measures used to assess the models' major constructs, and that the effect of completing a questionnaire on cognitions and subsequent behavior is an empirical question.